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ASA Style Guide, 2nd ed. (1997)

Print Resources

The examples below are based on the American Sociological Association (ASA) style guide, 2nd ed. (1997). If you cannot find the examples you need, please see the complete ASA guide at the reference desk (R 808.06 S938) or ask for help at the reference desk.

A Reference List is a list of sources that you have used for your paper. A reference list is titled References. It is placed at the end of the paper, with entries arranged alphabetically by authors' last names, and double-spaced.

Book entries should consist of the following information: author with inverted name, and middle initial, year of publication, italicized title of book, publication place , and name of publisher.

A journal article entry should consist of: author's inverted name and middle initial, year of publication, title of article in quotations. Journal title italicized, volume number followed by colon, page number(s) and period, Issue number following the volume number in parenthesis or exact date for journal article prior to the volume number for journals that do not number pages consecutively within a volume.

Examples by Type of Resource

Type of Resource Reference List
Book-Single Author Bobbio, Norberto. 1987. The Future of Democracy: A Defense of the Rules of the Game. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota.
Book-Two authors

Book-More than two authors
Renzetti, Claire M. and Daniel J. Curran. 1998. Living Sociology. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Bulcroft, Kris, Linda Smeins, and Richard Bulcroft. 1999.Romancing the Honeymoon: Consummating Marriage in Modern Society. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Journal Article
(one author)

Goodman, Leo A. 1947a. “Exploratory Latent Structure Analysis Using Both Identifiable and Unidentifiable Models.” Biometrika 61:215-31.

Journal Article (more than one author) Whitmore, Kathryn F. and Caryl G. Crowell. 1994. "What Makes a Good Question is...." New Advocate 7(1): 45-57.
Government Publication Mason, Karen O. 1974. Women's Labor Force Participation and Fertility. Research Triangle Park, NC: National Institutes of Health.
Newspaper Article Schulte, Brigid. 2002. “Trapped Between 2 Languages; Poor and Isolated, Many Immigrants' Children Lack English.” The Washington Post, June 9, pA1.
Magazine Article Jana, Reena. 2000. "Preventing culture clashes - As the IT workforce grows more diverse, managers must improve awareness without creating inconsistency." InfoWorld, April 24, pp. 95.
Article from a collected, edited work

Brewer, John D. 1998. "Sensitivity in Field Research: A Study of Policing in Northern Ireland." Pp. 29-37 in Seeing Ourselves: Classic, Contemporary, and Cross-Cultural Readings in Sociology, edited by John J. Macionis and Nijole V. Benokraitis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Electronic Resources

Type of Resource Reference List
Journal Article in a full text database Conley, Amy C. 2001. "Social Welfare and Welfare Reform: Organizations, Congregations, and Community." Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare. 34:3 (3 pages). Retrieved August 20, 2007.
Available: Ebsco Academic Search Premier.
Web based Journal or Electronic Journal Smith, Herman W. and Takako Nomi. 2000. "Is Amae the Key to Understanding Japanese Culture?." Electronic Journal of  Sociology 5:1. Retrieved May 5, 2000 (
Website American Sociological Association. 2000. “Scholarship of Teaching and Learning Workshop.” Washington, DC: American Sociological Association, Retrieved May 5, 2000 (
E-Books Torres, Carlos Alberto and Theodore R. Mitchell, eds. 1998. Sociology of Education: Emerging Perspectives. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Retrieved April 26, 2005 (
The American Sociological Association recommends using an in-text citation anytime the student uses the author's words, facts and/or ideas within the paper, including paraphrasing and direct quotations. The in-text citation can come in the middle or at the end of a sentence. You should include the author's last name and then the date of the work in parentheses at the end of the sentence, e.g. (Adler 2000). For joint authors give both names, e.g. (Weiss and Frank 2006). If the author's name is included in the sentence which precedes it, the date in parentheses will suffice, e.g. Gupta notes in his work (2001). If a quotation is used, cite the page number after the date e.g. (Colwin, 2002:188).
Other tips while using the ASA style:
  • Use italics for books and journal titles
  • Use N.d. if no date is available for a certain resource
  • Include the city and the postal abbreviation for the state, unless the work is published in New York.
  • Works without an author are placed in the beginning of the bibliography
  • Two works by the same author are listed in order of year of publication in the bibliography. Six hyphens and a period (------.) are used in place of the name when the authorship is the same as in the preceding citation.

*Also see the ASA Style homepage for more help: