Integrative Biology

A biology student at work in the greenhouse

This concentration emphasizes the relationships of organisms with each other and their environment and incorporates ecology and evolutionary biology.  This concentration would be a good choice for students who plan to pursue graduate degrees in such fields or who want to work as naturalists or environmental biologists.

Degree Awarded

Bachelor of Science (B.S.) with a concentration in Integrative Biology

Major & Concentration Requirements

The Biology major with a concentration in Integrative Biology consists of 82-83 s.h. distributed as follows:

Required Courses

  • BIO 1530 Fundamentals of Biology I (4 s.h.)
  • BIO 1560 Fundamentals of Biology II (4 s.h.)
  • BIO 2430 Introduction to Zoology (4 s.h.)
  • BIO 2440 Introduction to Botany (4 s.h.)
  • BIO 2900 Bio Statistics (3 s.h.)
  • BIO 2990 Evolutionary Biology and Population Genetics (3 s.h.)
  • BIO 3120 General Ecology (4 s.h.)
  • BIO 3310 Conservation Biology (3 s.h.)


Choose three:

  • BIO 3020 Invertebrate Zoology (4 s.h.)
  • BIO 3100 Plant Physiology (3 s.h.)
  • BIO 3110 Plant Taxonomy (4 s.h.)
  • BIO 3210 Insect Biology (4 s.h.)
  • BIO 3990 Comparative Animal Physiology (3 s.h.)

Chemistry Courses

  • CHE 1510 General Chemistry I (4 s.h.)
  • CHE 1520 General Chemistry II (4 s.h.)
  • CHE 3210 Organic Chemistry I (4 s.h.)
  • CHE 3220 Organic Chemistry II (4 s.h.)

Mathematics Courses

  • MAT 1130 Pre-Calculus I (or higher) (3 s.h.)
  • MAT 2200 Applied Statistics (3 s.h.)

Contact the Biology Program

Dr. Rob McCandless

Rob McCandless, PhD

Professor of Biology
(910) 630-7247
Hendricks 127
Dr. Rob McCandless
Rob McCandless, PhD

Professor of Biology

B.A., M.S., Ph.D., University of Louisville


Dr. McCandless’ areas of expertise include evolutionary biology, zoology and statistics.   His research interests include investigations of the conservation status and population genetics of cave adapted cavefish and crayfish species.  As a long time college instructor, he is also interested in statistical analysis of assessment data to evaluate teaching effectiveness, particularly in freshman biology courses.  He enjoys hiking, amateur astronomy and reading science fiction, military history, and biographies.

(910) 630-7247
Hendricks 127